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Human foot and its purpose

Human foot and its purpose

Human foot is a complex anatomic structure consisting of 26 bones which form two arches.

The longitudinal arch forms itself along the foot length, meanwhile the transverse arch - across the width.Foot bones are connected with each other by fibrous tissue called ligaments. Foot muscles together with the hard or plantar fascia provide the stability of the midfoot. Foot muscles can be classified into two main groups - extrinsic and intrinsic, they start at the lower third part of the leg and connect to different levels of the foot bones. A layer of fat cushiones the striking energy which is attributed to the foot while walking, running and jumping.  

Success in sports fully depends on the feet. Pain indicates that something is wrong with the any of the interacting inner structures of the foot. Circumstances of pain and its localization are the keys to definition of its source. When in pain human body reacts to the changes and in order to ease the pain it switches to the “emergency mode”. Biomechanical changes or disease can obstruct the normal moving and cause further damage.  

What causes the pain in the ball of foot?

Foot pain can be caused by a number of different reasons or injuries, including acute or repetitive injury, deformity, diseases or combination of them.

Injury as the result of external action aimed directly at the body.

Wrong foot positioning which leads to the distortion of the vector forces acting towards it. Shoes with too hard basis, high heels and high boots with hard lacing also can provoke the pain and haematomas in the compression area.

Acute injuries such as ligament or muscle strain, bruises and fractures.

Ligament or muscle strain, bruises and fractures can be a result of single stress exerted on the foot or a combination of them. Foot ligament or ankle joint sprain happens when ligaments connecting bones with each other are overloaded, their fibers are overstretched. Relaxation of ligaments can cause foot pain.

Muscle frame and fascia can be overloaded from over stress

Pressure and bruises or ripped (when blowed by a sharp object, for example). Achilles tendonitis are the basic injury of the ligament which is connected to the heel bone along the back part of the heel.

Foot bone and ligaments injury can be a result of a blow or abrupt turnabout of foot.

As well as repetitive injuries which can lead to stress-inducing damages. Blunt traumas caused by pressure when somebody steps on the foot can lead not only to bruises, but damage muscles and ligaments of the foot.

Direct injury as the result of a kick can cause bruises, breaks in the skin or even bone fracture. 

Morton's neuralgia — is a pain arising between the heads of 2-3-4-th metatarsal bones. Nail injury can lead to the accumulation of hematomas under nails and temporary or permanent loss of nail. Repetitive injuries of bones, muscles, ligaments can lead to the growth of osteochondral tissue called spurs or exostosis.

Microtrauma can be provoked while working on uneven, too hard or too soft surfaces

Foot arches evenly distribute the weight of our body in the standing position. Plantar fascia traumas frequently causes the pain in the foot arch. Plantar fascia based on the heel bone spreads distally along the plantar surface of the foot and connects to the heads of metatarsal bones, thus providing support to the foot arch. If plantar fascia is damaged, inflammation arises and can surface as the pain in the foot arch. High and low arches (flatfoot) can cause pain because of the foot deformation.

As well as while wearing unsuitable and uncomfortable shoes which absorbs the stress poorly. Repetitive stress on the foot structure can lead to the stress fractures, tendinitis, plantar fasciitis and acute or chronic osteoarthritis.

Mismatched shoes

Shoes can also provoke foot pain. Brief wearing of narrow shoes can lead to the chafes, callus and scratches. Continuous wearing of such shoes leads to the formation of bunions, hyperkeratosis, nerves and ligaments stimulation, fingers displacement and foot microtraumas. If you feel pain in the foot bunions, contact your orthopedist immediately.

Viruses, bacteria and other diseases

Verrucas located on the foot plantar surface and during activities can cause irritation and pain, their source is a virus. Ingrown toenail is a common cause of pain in the feet. It becomes a source of irritation and sometimes can lead to infection.

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